If concerns continue, a teacher may turn to a student support team for help. These teams have many different names, such as pupil services team, student assistance teams, teacher assistance teams, or instructional support teams. The teams are composed of teachers and other professionals (e.g., school psychologist, speech-language pathologist) and may include the principal and relevant specialists. By January or February of first grade, tests of early word reading, decoding, and spelling begin to be useful in providing information about what the student has learned and what gaps in knowledge exist.
Monica sought clarification from her school’s special education coordinator, who explained that although dyslexia is not a disability category under IDEA , students with dyslexia can receive services under the SLD category. Dyslexia can impact many areas of functioning and can range from mild to moderate to severe. An evaluator will gather thorough background information about your family and your child. Parents and teachers are typically given questionnaires about the child’s behavior and performance. The evaluator will choose specific tests based on your child’s age. A good evaluator will provide a written report that states the results of the tests, any diagnoses made, and his or her interpretations and recommendations.
They can determine red flags but then a diagnosis needs to be provided by a qualified outside professional. Finally, the report should identify instructional programs that appear to be appropriate in meeting the specific skill gaps and weaknesses identified through the evaluation process. 讀寫障礙評估 have already mastered some beginning reading skills. Thus, it is not always necessary or reasonable for a child to be placed in the very beginning lessons of a program.
Table 2: Assessing Cognitive Processes
However, early detection and evaluation to determine specific needs and appropriate treatment can improve success. In many cases, treatment can help children become competent readers. The provider may ask you and your child questions to better understand your child’s mental health. This can help determine whether social problems, anxiety or depression may be limiting your child’s abilities. If testing shows that your child has dyslexia, there are next steps to follow to get help. Find out what types of dyslexia accommodations your child might be eligible for.
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Although schools do not commonly use the term dyslexia, it is important for school personnel to understand the specific areas that can be affected by dyslexia. School personnel can then identify appropriate measures to use in an evaluation and link data from the evaluation to the development of an individualized education program . One approach to eligibility determination is a process put forth by Flanagan and colleagues (Flanagan, Ortiz, Alfonso, & Dynda, 2006a; Flanagan, Ortiz, Alfonso, & Mascolo, 2002, 2006).
Reading is a gateway skill — the ability to read is fundamental to and facilitates all academic learning. When students’ reading development lags behind that of their classmates, they are at a disadvantage not only in reading but also in writing, mathematics, and other content areas. Pre-referral information generated through a multitiered system of supports is useful in addressing this criterion. Within such a model, it is presumed that information on vision, hearing, and the impact of cultural or linguistic and other noncognitive factors are considered as part of providing interventions. Because RTI models also emphasize appropriate interventions and monitoring of student progress, they provide information as to the adequacy of the instruction received. This step requires sufficient assessment or review of records, interviews with parents and former teachers, and direct observation of the student.
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A dyslexia diagnosis does not mean that a child will qualify for an IEP. If a student does not qualify for an IEP, they may still be able to obtain a 504 plan. A diagnosis also helps give a specific roadmap for interventions. There are experts within each school district to assist with the testing process, where to get tested, and with setting up a student’s Individual Education Plan, or IEP. It is also critical to assess the student’s word-reading skills, which requires assessing accuracy and fluency with both real and nonsense words in timed and untimed situations.
Low reading performance alone, which may be evident as students move through tiers of instruction, is insufficient for the identification of dyslexia (Berninger & May, 2011). Monica, a special education teacher, had been working with her school’s student support team monitoring the progress of a first-grade student, Sam, as he moved through the school’s response-to-intervention process. The best predictor of how easily a student will develop written language skills. Instead, oral language abilities are considered the best predictors of reading and spelling. Decades of research and national test scores confirm that reading problems commonly occur and affect as many as one in five bright and motivated students who have average or above average intelligence.